Linear Voltage Regulator

3. September 2020 13:26 by Admin in Linear Voltage Regulators - Blog

In electrical engineering, a linear voltage regulator is a system that is utilized in maintaining a steady voltage. The regulator's resistance varies according to the load as well as the input voltage, leading output of unchanged voltage. This regulating device is constructed in such a manner that it behaves like a variable resistor which adjusts a voltage divider network continuously to keep up a steady yield voltage. In contrast to this, a switching regulator takes the help of active equipment that turns ON/OFF to keep an average output value. Since the regulated voltage should always be lower than the output voltage, the value of efficiency is limited. To enable the active device to drop some voltage, the input voltage needs to be high.

Linear regulators may keep the regulating device in between the regulated load and the source (series) or in parallel with the load. Simple linear regulators may include a series of resistors and a Zener diode while the complex ones come with power pass element, voltage reference, and error amplifiers. Since a linear regulator is one of the most common elements in several devices, ICs are very common. Linear voltage regulators may also be constructed by several vacuum tubes or solid-state components.

There are 2 basic forms of Linear Voltage Regulators. One is the series regulators and the other one is the shunt regulators. Most of the linear regulators in use are marked with maximum rated output current. This is commonly limited by the current conveying ability, or by the power dissipation ability of the output transistor.

 

  1. Series Regulators – Series regulators are the most commonly used regulators; they are much more efficient than the shunt regulators. This regulator works by setting up a path from the load to the supply voltage through a variable resistance (transistor). For this reason, it is commonly known as pass transistor. The amount of power dissipated by the regulator is equal to the product of the voltage drop with the power supply output current in the device. For the reduced stress and efficiency on the pass transistor, manufacturers generally try to decrease the amount of voltage drop. It is found that not all the circuits are regulated efficiently as soon as their input voltage comes near the required output voltage. Those that are regulated efficiently is known as Low Dropout regulators.

 

  1. Shunt Regulators – This regulator works by giving a way from the ground to the supply voltage through a variable resistance. The current coming from the regulator is made to flow to the ground by diverting away from the load. Because of this reason, the shunt regulators are less efficient than the series regulator. These kinds of regulators are used in very low-powered circuits where the squandered current is too little to even think about being of concern.

 

This was all we have regarding linear voltage regulators. Hope you liked going through it. Brands that manufacture these regulators are ON Semiconductor, Texas Instruments, and STMicroelectronics. Make sure to check them out using the links as provided.

Gate Driver

2. September 2020 09:11 by Admin in Gate Driver - Blog

A power amplifier that takes in the low power input with the help of a controller IC and generates a high current gate drive for a power device is known as a gate driver. It is utilized whenever a PWM controller is not able to provide the output current needed to drive the gate capacitance of the power device linked to it.

In the power electronic systems, the gate driver circuit is the most important part. It forms an interface between the control circuits and the high-power electronics and is utilized to drive powerful semiconductor devices. The output from the SMPS and DC-DC converters depends mainly on the gate driver's circuits. This leads to the conclusion that if the gate driver circuit is not able to drive the gate of a power device in the right manner, the output of the DC-DC converter will not be as per the design requirement. Thus, the gate driver circuit’s design is significant in the structuring of power electronic converters.

 

Gate Drivers Types

  1. High Side Low Side Drivers – This kind of gate drivers is utilized in driving 2 switches that are connected in the bridge arrangements (both ground referenced and floating switches).
  2. Low Side Drivers - This kind of gate drivers is utilized in driving ground-referenced switches.

 

Gate Driver Isolation

Gate drive circuits for power converters and inverters commonly require electrical isolation for both safety and functional purposes. Isolation is ordered by administrative and security accreditation organizations to forestall stun dangers. The gate drivers also help in protecting low voltage electronics from any kind of damage caused by faults on the high power side circuit. On the control side, these drivers also provide protection from error due to humans. In the system, due to the electrical separation between several functional circuits, a direct conductional path between them is prevented. Not only this, but it also enables individual circuits to have different ground voltage. Power and signals can still pass between isolated circuits with the help of capacitive, optical, or inductive methods.

Several applications of power devices need an isolated gate drive circuit. For instance, in power converter topologies like the two-switch forward, buck, active-clamp forward, full-bridge and, half-bridge, both the high as well as low switches are present because low side drivers cannot be utilized directly for driving the higher power equipment. This equipment needs an isolated gate driver because the emitter and source of the upper devices are not sitting at the ground potential.

 

Two things are required for driving high side switches:

  • Level shifter - to pass on the PWM control signal to the floating driver circuitry.
  • Floating Supply – to support any circuitry by providing power with this floating midpoint potential.

 

Techniques of Isolation

Generally, there are two most common methods to actualize isolated gate drivers:

  • Optical – Takes place with the help of Opt coupler.
  • Magnetic – Takes place with the help of Gate drive transformers.

 

This was all we have regarding Gate drivers. Hope you liked going through it. Brands that manufacture them are TE Connectivity, ITT, and Molex. Make sure to visit them using the links as provided.

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Rheostat

1. August 2020 23:53 by Admin in Rheostat - Blog

A variable resistor that is utilized in controlling current is known as a rheostat. This device helps in varying the resistance in an electrical circuit without any interruption. The construction of a rheostat is much like that of the potentiometers. Even when three terminals are present, it utilizes only 2 connections, like a potentiometer. One of the connection is made with the wiper and the other one is made to the resistive element. Unlike the potentiometers, rheostats can convey a noteworthy current. Thus they are generally manufactured as wire wound resistors. The resistive wire is twisted around a protecting ceramic core and the wiper slides over the windings.

Rheostats were most commonly utilized in power controlling devices, for example, to operate the speed of motors, to control the intensity of light (dimmer), in ovens and heaters. These days they are not utilized for this capacity any longer. The reason behind this is because of its low efficiency. Because of its characteristic of variable resistance they are generally used for calibration in a given electrical circuit. In these cases, they are balanced distinctly during creation or circuit tuning. In these cases generally, trimpots are utilized, wired as a rheostat.

 

Types of Rheostat

There are many types of Rheostat. Let’s look at them below:

  • Rotary Rheostat – As the name suggests, the rotary rheostat comes with a rotary resistive path. These have found its utilization in power applications. This kind of rheostat has a shaft which is mounted by a wiper. The wiper is just a sliding contact for a rotary rheostat that can pivot over three-fourth of a circle.

 

  • Linear Rheostat – This kind of rheostat comes with a linear resistive path. The path is glided by the sliding terminal. Here we have got 2 fixed terminal but only one of them is used. The other one is attached to the slider. These are generally utilized in laboratory applications. For the most part, a wire-wound resistive way along with a linear cylinder-shaped material is utilized.

 

  • Preset Rheostat – Whenever rheostats are utilized in the printed circuit board, they are either utilized as preset rheostats or trimmers. Trimmers are a small rheostat generally used in circuits for calibration. Though there is an option of 2 terminal trimmers, in most of the cases 3 terminal potentiometer trimmer is utilized as a 2 terminal rheostat.

 

Applications of a Rheostat

One of the most important applications of the rheostat as discussed above is to operate the flow of current. All of its other application is derived from this current controlling capability of the rheostat. For example, the rheostats are used to limit the flow of current such that high current faults could be prevented. It is important to choose the size of the rheostat according to the current requirement. For instance, if you have got a high current circuit then you need to have a rheostat of larger size. These kinds are used in dimmer circuits, in heaters, ovens as well as speed control circuits in motors.

 

This was all we have regarding Rheostat. Hope you liked the article. Brands that manufacture them are Ohmite, Vishay, and TE Connectivity. Make sure to check them out using the links as provided.  

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Metal Film Resistors – Through Hole

As the name suggests, the metal film resistor is manufactured by keeping a slim layer of metal onto a ceramic former. Here the metallic film behaves in the same manner as the resistance wire. You can even control its thickness, length, and width such that it can be produced to a high tolerance.

The metal film resistor can be pre-aged. Not only this, but the metal protected to ensure it does not see any deterioration in its quality with time. Thus, the stability for the long term is good.

In the present time, these metal film resistors are a well-known choice for leaded axial resistors and because of this, they are utilized in large quantities.

 

Construction of Metal Film Resistor

The metal film resistor is made by vacuum which deposits a layer of metal on a highly purified ceramic cylinder rod. Often, the more the thickness of the metal film deposited, the more is the stability in the value of the resistor. Generally, the thickness of the film lies in the range of 50 to 250nm as the stability levels are directly proportional to the thickness of the material. A variety of techniques can be utilized for this, but the most popular one is sputtering. The metal that is used for depositing are generally Chromium, Nickel, NiCr, but other metals like platinum with gold, or tantalum nitride may also be taken into consideration for some highly specialized applications.

As soon as the film gets deposited, a metal end cap is pressed over it. This reaches the resistive film and has the leads joined.

The next phase in the manufacture is to bring the value of resistance to the desired figure. This is achieved generally with the help of lasers to trim a helix into the metal film. This decreases the width of the current-carrying track while keeping the thickness of the deposited material within an optimum range for providing stability for long term.

Laser trimming’s accuracy level means that the resistor can be made to an extremely close tolerance level. A tolerance of 0.5%, 0.25%, 0.1%, as we all 2% and 1% are present. The tolerance of 1 and 2 percent are available on a wide scale. This makes the electrical circuits to keep up decent repeatability starting with one unit then onto the next.

It is also to be noted that the metal film resistor also keeps an optimum temperature co-efficient which lies in the range of 50 and 100ppm /K.

The final step in the manufacturing process of the metal film resistor is to add up the markings and the protective coating. Generally, this protective coating comprises a resin that is included in many layers that are separately heated on. And at the end, the marking rings are added to demonstrate the estimation of metal film resistor and the other applicable attributes.

This was all we have regarding metal film resistors. Hope you liked going through the article. Brands that manufacture them are Vishay, Yageo, and KOA Speer. Make sure to check them out using the links as provided.

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Trimmer Resistor through Hole

30. July 2020 19:47 by Admin in Trimmer Resistors through Hole - Blog

A trimmer in electronics is an adjustable miniature electrical component. It is intended to be set accurately when introduced in some gadget, and never observed or balanced by the gadget's user. Trimmers can be variable capacitors, variable resistors (potentiometers), or inductors. They are commonly used in accuracy hardware like A/V segments and may be balanced when the equipment is serviced. Trimpots are generally used to calibrate electrical equipment initially after manufacturing. Contrary to many other variable controls, these trimmers are clamped on the circuit boards, turned with a little screwdriver, and appraised for several fewer calibration over their lifetime. Trimmers, for example, trimmable capacitors and trimmable inductors are generally found in radio and superhet radio receivers, radio frequency, and intermediate frequency circuits. They are set in the correct position during the time of the alignment procedure of the receiver.

In electronics, Presets are those adjustable components to which the user has no access to. They are made to adjust during the time of the manufacture of that device or during the time of its maintenance/repair. Several passive electrical components can be used as presets, like inductors, resistors, and capacitors.

 

General Considerations

Trimmers can be found with different levels of precision and sizes. For instance, we have the multi-turn trim potentiometer which reaches its end value after several turns of screw adjustment. This helps in getting a very high accuracy level. Often they also use a leadscrew (linear track) or a worm-gear (rotary track).

 

Resistors

Resistor trimmers can be found generally in the form of a Potentiometer, often known as trimpot. There are three terminals present in a potentiometer, but it can be modified for a two-terminal resistor by attaching the wiper to any one of the other terminals. Trimpot was patented in 1952 by Marlan Bourns and till then it is a registered trademark of Bourns, Inc.

There are two types of preset resistors that are found in the circuits commonly.

  • The first one is the skeleton potentiometer that has the working principle the same as a regular circular potentiometer. The only difference is that it is stripped of its shaft, enclosure, and fixings. The complete movement of this kind of potentiometer is less than a single turn.

 

  • The second one is the multi-turn potentiometer which provides movement to the slider along the resistive track through a worm gear set up. In this potentiometer, the gearing is done in such a manner that multiple turns are required for an adjustment screw to position the slider the complete distance along the resistive track.

 

This was all we have regarding Trimmer Resistors through hole. We hope that you liked the article. Brands that manufacture them are Bourns, TT Electronics, and Vishay. Make sure to visit them using the links as provided.

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Potentiometers

29. July 2020 23:31 by Admin in Potentiometer - Blog

A potentiometer is defined as a 3 terminal resistor having a rotating or sliding contact that makes up the adjustable voltage divider. If you are using only the two terminals present in it (one end and the wiper), then it behaves like a variable resistor or rheostat.

Potentiometer, a measuring instrument, is a voltage divider which is used to measure the electric potential difference. This electric component has got its name as a potentiometer because it is an implementation of the same principle.

Potentiometers are used mainly in controlling electrical devices like in audio equipment for controlling the volume. Potentiometers that are controlled by a mechanism can be utilized as position transducers, like, as used in a joystick. Potentiometers are used very often to control significant power (greater than watt) directly since the dissipated power in the potentiometer is comparable to the power present in the controlled load.

 

Nomenclature for Potentiometers

There is a vast amount of electronic equipment present in the industry. For the simplification of the people, each of them comes with its code and nomenclature. Let's have a look at the nomenclature as described for a potentiometer.

  • Trimmer pot or Trimpot – A trimmer potentiometer is a potentiometer that is generally meant to be calibrated once or infrequently for the electrical signal to get tuned finely.
  • Thumbwheel pot or Thumb pot – A rotating potentiometer (small) which can be calibrated infrequently with the help of small thumbwheel.
  • Slider pot or Slide Pot – This kind of potentiometer is adjusted with the help of a wiper by shifting it right or left (or even up and down - It depends on the way of its installation), generally with the help of thumb or a finger.

 

Digital Potentiometer

A digital potentiometer, generally known as digipot, is an electronic equipment that copies all the functionality of analog potentiometers. Just like the analog potentiometer, the resistance present between the 2 terminals can be adjusted through digital input signals.

There are 2 main functional types of digital potentiometers.

  • Non-Volatile – It uses a strong mechanism like that present in EEPROM or flash memory to retain their set position.
  • Volatile – It loses its set position as soon as the power is removed from them. It is generally designed to initialize at the base position.

The use of digipot is much complex than that of a simple analog potentiometer. Not only that, but there are many noticeable limitations as well. Still, they are broadly utilized, regularly for factory calibration and adjustment of hardware, particularly where the constraints of mechanical potentiometers are dangerous.

 

Membrane Potentiometers

A membrane potentiometer is a potentiometer that takes the help of a conductive membrane that is distorted by a sliding element to contact a resistor voltage divider. Linearity lies between 0.5 percent to 5 percent as per the designs, materials, and processes used while manufacturing. The repeat accuracy generally lies in the range of 0.1mm to 1.0mm with an infinite resolution theoretically.

This was all we have regarding Potentiometers. Brands that manufacture them are Bourns, Honeywell, and Vishay. Make sure to go through them using the links as provided.

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Common Mode Chokes

29. July 2020 23:25 by Admin in Common Mode Choke - Blog

In the field of electronics, a choke is defined as an inductor which is used to block higher-frequency while passing Alternating Current (AC) of lower frequencies and Direct Current (DC) in an electrical circuit. A choke generally comes with a coil made up of insulated wire generally wound on a magnetic core, albeit some comprise of a donut molded "globule" of ferrite material hung on a wire. The impedance of the choke increases with the increase in the frequency. Because of the low electrical resistance, it passes both the DC and AC with a little amount of power dissipation. The amount of AC passed is limited due to its reactance.

The name “choking” is derived from blocking as it blocks high frequencies while passing low frequencies. It is a functional name. The word – “choke” is used for all the inductor that helps in decoupling or blocking higher frequencies, but the electrical component is simply known as an inductor if it is used in tuned circuits or electronic filters. Inductors that are designed for the utilization as chokes are generally recognized by not having the low-loss construction (high Q factor).

 

Common Mode Choke

The CMC or the Common Mode Choke, where two curls are twisted on a solitary center, is helpful for the suppression of RFI (Radio Frequency Interference) and Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) from the power supply lines. It also prevents the malfunctioning of power electronics devices. It passes both equal as well as different current while blocking common mode currents. The magnetic flux generated by differential mode (DM) currents in the solid core will in general cancel each other since the windings are negatively coupled. Thus, the choke provides little impedance or inductance to DM currents. Commonly this also suggests that the core won't soak for a huge amount of DM currents and the heating effect of the winding resistance will determine the maximum current rating. However, the CM current gets a high amount of impedance because of the summed inductance of the positively coupled windings.

CM chokes have found its use in electrical, telecommunications, and industrial applications to either decrease or remove noise and some other linked electromagnetic interference.

Whenever the CM current is conducted by the CM choke, most of the magnetic flux initiated by the windings is restricted with the inductor core because of its high permeability. Here, the leakage flux is very low. But still, the DM current which flows through the windings will produce a high amount of magnetic field as the windings are negatively coupled. A twisted winding structure is used with the CM choke to decrease this near magnetic field emission.

The difference between the conventional balanced 2 winding common mode choke and the balanced twisted windings common mode choke is that the windings cooperate in the focal point of the center open window.

This was all we have regarding Common Mode Chokes. Hope you liked going through the article. Brands that manufacture them are Kemet, Schaffner, and Murata. Make sure to check them out using the links as provided.

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VCXO Oscillators

25. July 2020 18:34 by Admin in

A Voltage Controlled Crystal Oscillator or a VCXO is a piece of electronic equipment whose oscillating or output frequency is altered whenever a control potential difference is given to it under a constant supply voltage. A VCXO comes with a crystal oscillator, supporting circuitry, and a varactor diode. The maximum change in the measure of the output frequency of VCXO over the change in control voltage under constant temperature and supply voltage – as said in ppm – is known as Pullability or Total Pulling Range.

 

Difference between VCXO and VCO

  1. In the VCXO an oscillation frequency is generated according to the Crystal Properties while in the VCO it is generated through an electronic circuit.
  2. The VCXO has got a narrow range of frequency while the VCO comes with a wide range of frequency.
  3. VCXO has got higher stability, on the other hand, VCO has got lower stability.
  4. VCXO has a lower phase noise while VCO has a higher phase noise.

 

Applications of VCXO

VCXOs have found their use in many applications. Here we have some of them:

  • Narrowband PLLs – VCXO is used in narrow-band phase-locked loops where the requirement for the change on frequency is very small.
  • Temperature Controlled Crystal Oscillators – VCXOs are mainly used in TCXOs, commonly known as Temperature Controlled Crystal Oscillators, where the temperature pay voltage is provided to a control terminal of the VCXO. Thus using this technique reduces the drift to a lot extent. It is to be noted that the use of VCXO is not that much good as a full oven-controlled crystal oscillator but still it can provide a slight up-gradation in its performance level.

 

VCXOs Specifications:

While specifying VCXOs the following parameters are normally taken into consideration.

  1. Package – The voltage-controlled crystal oscillators come in different forms, thus it is important to specify the right package for the right product.

 

  1. Pullability – The pullability is defined as the range of frequency over which the VCXO can be pulled for a defined change in control potential difference. For a given voltage, it is specified in terms of ppm (parts per million). VCXO having a small pullability value offers a lower phase noise and greater stability. While VCXOs with larger pullability value provides a larger tuning range.

 

  1. Voltage Supply – It is important to mention the supply voltage to guarantee that it works inside the unit for which it is proposed. Ideally, it ought to have the option to work outside the normal resistance of the flexibly so that any slight jumble doesn't cause an issue.

 

  1. Frequency – This is generally specified in MHz for all frequencies that are in the range of over 1.0MHz and in KHz for all frequencies that are below this. It is also important to specify the frequency to the right number of decimal spots to empower the producer to have the option to decide the necessary recurrence required.

 

This was all we have regarding VCXO Oscillators. Hope you liked going through it. Brands that manufacture them are ABRACON, Silicon Labs and, Crystek. Make sure to check them out using the links as provided.

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TCXO Oscillator

24. May 2020 20:06 by Admin in TCXO Oscillator - Blog

A Temperature Compensator Crystal Oscillator or a TCXO is a crystal oscillator that is designed to withstand high-temperature conditions. In a regular crystal oscillator the oscillation frequency fluctuates with the rise in temperature. The consequence of this is an unstable oscillation frequency. TCXO supports a stable oscillation frequency at high temperatures. For this, they take the help of a temperature compensation network which balances out the oscillation frequency at higher temperatures.

 

Performance figure of TCXO

Some of the most important performance figures of TCXO are as follows:

  • Power Dissipation – The dissipation of power in a TCXO will be much greater as compared to an ordinary oscillator keeping in view of the additional circuitry needed. In addition to that the cost becomes greater. It should also be kept in mind that the cost is greater. It is also worth remembering that it will take a short period after start-up for the oscillator to stabilize. This might be of the order 100 ms, or conceivably more, subordinate upon the plan.

 

  • TCXO PPM performance – As said earlier, the performance of TCXO temperature is much better as compared to a normal crystal oscillator. Ordinarily, figures of somewhere in the range of 10 and 40 times improvement can regularly be seen. Figures that are better than +1.5 (or -1.5) ppm over a temperature range of 0 to 70 degrees Celsius are much harder to achieve as they at that point fall into a high exactness classification where costs increment essentially.

 

  • TCXO package – TCXOs can be supplied in several packages depending upon the requirements of the end-user as well as the way they have been designed. The most well-known type of development is to build the circuit on a little printed circuit board that can be housed in a plat metal bundle. This is then reasonable for mounting onto the fundamental circuit leading body of the general hardware. As the crystal is sealed itself, this implies fixing of the general TCXO bundle isn't basic, or even required for most applications.

 

  • Output format and level - With numerous TCXOs being utilized for driving advanced circuits, a large portion of the little oscillator bundles produce what is named a clipped sine wave. This is suitable for driving a logic circuit, but in many instances it is recommended to put it through a logic buffer to make sure that it is sufficiently square. The output is generally an open collector circuit. On the off chance that a sine wave output is needed, at that point this must be picked at the start and it will confine the decision accessible.

 

  • Power Requirements – The actual requirement of power depends on the particular device. Many works from provisions of 3 V, and may draw as meager as 2 mA, even though this will rely on the general kind, the producer and the specific gadget picked.

 

This was all we have regarding the TCXO oscillator. Hope you liked going through it. Brands that manufacture them are ABRACON, TXC Corporation, and AVX. Check them out using the links as provided.

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Crystal Oscillator

23. May 2020 15:30 by Admin in

A crystal oscillator is said to be an electrical oscillator circuit that utilizes the mechanical resonance of a vibrating crystal made up of piezoelectric material to establish an electrical signal with an exact frequency. This frequency is found to be useful in providing a stable clock signal in digital integrated circuits, keeping a track of time (in quartz wristwatches), and to settle frequencies for radio receiver and transmitters. The most widely recognized kind of piezoelectric resonator utilized is the quartz crystals, so oscillator circuits consolidating them got known as crystal oscillators, but other piezoelectric materials including polycrystalline ceramics are utilized in comparable circuits.

A crystal oscillator, particularly that utilizes quartz crystal, works by mutilating the crystal by an electric field when a potential difference is applied to the electrode. This property is known as inverse piezoelectricity or electrostriction. As soon as the electric field is taken off, the quartz that is oscillating at a precise frequency returns to its previous shape and generates an electric field. This can even set up a voltage. The consequence is that this quartz crystal starts to act like an RLC circuit but with a much higher value of Q.

Quartz crystals are produced for frequencies ranging from a few tens of Kilo Hertz to hundreds of MegaHertz. It is estimated that more than 2 Billion crystals are produced per year. Most of them have found their use in consumer devices like clocks, computers, wristwatches, cellphones, and radios. These crystals are also used inside measuring and texting equipment like oscilloscopes, signal generators, counters, etc.

 

Operation

A crystal is defined as that solid where all its constituent atoms, ions, or molecules are packed in regular order, repeated pattern in all its 3 dimensions.

Whenever a crystal made up of quartz is cut and mounted properly, it very well may be made to contort in an electric field by applying a voltage to a terminal close or on the crystal. As said earlier, this property is known as Electrostriction. When the field is removed, it sets up an electric field as it gets back in its initial shape. Thus, it behaves like an RLC circuit, made up of a capacitor, resistor, and an inductor.

One more advantage of quartz is that its size and elastic constants change in such a manner that the frequency reliance on temperature can be extremely low. The specific characteristic depends on two things: the angle at which the quartz is cut (with respect to its crystallographic axes) and the mode of vibration. As a result, the resonant frequency of the plate (depending on size) does not vary much. This conveys that a quartz filter, oscillator, or a clock remains accurate. For basic applications, the quartz oscillator is mounted in a temperature-controlled holder known as Crystal Oven. It can also be mounted on shock absorbers to forestall irritation by outer mechanical vibrations.

This was all we have for Crystal Oscillator. Hope you liked this article. Brands that manufacture them are ABRACON, ECS Inc, and IQD. Make sure to visit them using the links as provided.

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